(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Standardized products ?a descriptive list of drug extracts standardized by chemical or physiological means ? together with a list of the various forms in which these drugs are marketed."


r 



..rf»" 




c 



( 



11 



f 



/ 



r^ 4. 



t 




/■ 



r 



'f 




Papaver somnifentm — Opium Poppy 



E37-4-11 



CUl 





Standardized Products 



nil 



A DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF 
DRUG EXTRACTS STAND- 
ARDIZED BY CHEMICAL OR 
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEANS 



Together with a List of the Various Forms in which these 

Drugs are Marketed 




^nn 



\ 









PARKE. DAVIS & COiMPANY 



1911 



MISSOURI BOTANICAL 



GARDEN LIBRARY — ' ^ 



I 

1: 






STANDARDIZED PRODUCTS. 



'^i^^^i^^^i^-Jtii^^r^^it^^^^^a^^^^ 



From the very inception of our business we have subjected 
all our chemical supplies to searching tests for purity and 
identity. The medical and pharmaceutical professions have 
always recognized the variation in the purity of chemical 
salts, but for some inexplicable reason they have not seemed 
to fully appreciate the fact that the market abounds in 
therapeutic drugs and galenical preparations whose medicinal 
value is conjectural. Some are practically inert, and some 
are potent to the point of danger, 

A short time ago a chemist bought ten samples of tincture 
of opium in which the content of morphine varied from 2.7 

i 

to 22.8 per cent. He also examined three tinctures of 
aconite, one of which was found to contain 9 per cent, 

I more aconitine than the standard required, and another 20 

t per cent. less. 

Samples of belladonna preparations showed from 25 to 

m 

* 45 per cent, less of mydriatic alkaloids than officially re- 

quired in the powdered extract of the leaves, and 1 1.5 per 
cent, less in the fluid extract of the root. Some powdered 
nux vomica was found to be comparatively worthless, while 
a few tinctured of this drug revealed an excess of strychnine 
— in one case 1 9 per cent. 

A well known pharmacologist recently examined tinctures 






t 



4 



of digitalis, strophanthus and ergot from supposedly reliable 
sources and found that they varied in strength in the ratio 
of 1 to 4, 

Any number of instances could be cited to shew how 
variable and unrehable are fluid extracts and tinctures made 
according to old and imperfect methods, and which have 
not been subjected to a rigid examination to determine their 

^ 

values as medicinal agents. 

r 

Long ago we became convinced that the only way to 
insure, in a given product, exact and uniform medicinal 
action was to standardize it— that is, to adjust it to a 
definite alkaloidal or other standard by systematic assay. 

We entered the field of standardization thirty years ago; 
we n?ere the pioneers — the first to abandon the uncertain 
methods in vogue and to make use of accurate processes — 
the first to prove the activity of drug products and to 
systematically measure that activity. 

To one product after another, therefore, we began to 
apply certain chemical tests to assure ourselves of their 
potency, and proceeded, scientifically, to adjust them to a 
uniform standard of strength — so that each dose might 
always be relied upon> barring idiosyncrasy in the patient, 
to exert the same measure of therapeutic effect. 

Fifteen years ago we realized the limitations of chemical 
testing — some important drugs, containing powerful active 
principles, could not be assayed in that manner. The 
chemist might examine two samples of cannabis indica. 
for example, and find that, so far as his tests went, they 




c 
o 

CO 



c 



a. 



X 



5 

were exactly alike, yet when given to animals or to patients 
one might prove very active and the other entirely inert. 

The only way in which such drugs can be tested is upon 
living animals, i.e., by the physiologic method. As we 
were the first manufacturers to adopt the principle of 
chemical standardization, so also were we the first to work 
out and apply practical methods for physiologically assaying 
drugs not amenable to chemical assay. 

In the current medical press appear utterances hke this: 
"We are realizing more and more the need of some kind of 
assay for most drugs. It becomes evident that, in some 
cases, ordinary chemical methods do not suffice to give full 
information concerning a drug. The effect of digitalis on 
the frog's heart or that of ergot on the cock's comb are 
known to give a truer indication of the therapeutic value of 
these drugs than any isolated chemical test." 

The Pharmacopoeia has adopted the principle of chemical 
standardization. In its eighth revision it requires alkaloidal 
standards of strength for twenty-one drugs. In addition to 
this it has recognized the physiologic method as the only one 
applicable to antidiphtheric serum, and a committee has been 
appointed to determine how far physiologic assays can be 
adapted to the ninth revision of the U. S, Pharmacopoeia. 

We do not restrict standardization to a few dru2s: our 
requirements are more rigid than those of the Pharma- 
copoeia; we standardize all those which are ordinarily re- 
garded as toxic or which possess such decided activity as to 
require accurate dosage. Every pill, every elixir and every 



6 



compound of our output in which these drugs enter as 
ingredients are included in this category. An examination 
of our price list reveals the fact that more than one thousand 
of our products are rendered definitely and uniformly active 
by our perfected system of testing. 

For this work- we maintain laboratories which afford 
unequaled facilities — under the supervision of scientists of 
world-wide reputation. 

The drugs herein tabulated comprise the most important 
of those which depend for their value upon a determinable 
or assayable active principle. 

PARKE. DAVIS & CO. 



7 



ACONITE. 



Also known as Monkshood and Wolfsbane. 

Leaves and root of Aconiium napellus (Linne) are used. 

Contains three alkaloids, of which aconitine is the most 



active 



Circulatory sedative; sudorific; antineuralgic ; anodyne. 
Employed in sthenic fevers, acute inflammations, and 
neuralgia; also locally in rheumatic and other pains. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Aconite leaves; tested physiologically. 
Dose, 1 to 3 mins. 

Fluid Extract Aconite, U. S. P. ; alkaloidal standard, 
0-4% aconitine. Tested physiologically also. 
Average dose, 1 min. 

Tincture Aconite, U. S. P.; alkaloidal standard, 
0.045% aconitine. Tested physiologically also. 
Average dose, 10 mins. 

Solid Extract Aconite root ; tested physiologically. 
Dose, 1-20 to 1-5 gr. 

Powdered Extract Aconite leaves; tested physiol 
cally. Dose, 1-4 to 1 gr. 

Powdered Extract Aconite root; tested physiologi- 
cally. Dose. 1-20 to 1-5 gr. 

Tablet Triturates of Tincture Aconite and Fluid Ex- 
tract Aconite root, in grainages of 1-10 min. to 2 
mins. 

Pills and Tablet Triturates of Aconitine (crystals). 
1-500 gr. to MOO gr. 

Also various combinations in pill and tablet form. 



ogi- 



8 

Note. — These products are prepared from crude ma- 
terial that has been carefully garbled and inspected. The 
root as it appears on the market is especially variable, many 
parcels containing a considerable proportion of inert or 
defective roots; among these are the root of Imperaloria 
osirulhium and ether varieties of the drug, of which there 
are a large number. We reject annually many lots of 
defective and spurious aconite, employing only the select of 
the market. Experience teaches that this drug gives the 
best results when administered in minute and frequently 
repeated doses. For most purposes the tincture is prefer- 
able ; of this from 5 to 1 minims may be mixed with about 
four ounces of water and a teaspoonful given every hour 
until the desired effect is obtained. 



ANHALONIUM, 

Also known as Pelloie and Mescale Buttons. 

The dried tops of Anhalonium Lemnii (Henning), a 
cactus indigenous to Mexico, are used. 

Contains several alkaloids, of which the most important 
appears to be anhalon'me. 

Cardiac tonic; nervine. 

Employed in neurasthenia, hysteria, asthma, and hypo- 
chondriasis. 



Standardized Product: 

Fluid Extract Anhalonium; standard, 5% alkaloids 
Dcse, 2 to 10 mins., cautiously. 




Cannabis satioa — Indian Hemp; American Hemp 



9 



ASAFETIDA. 



A gum-resin from the root of Ferula foeiida (Bunge). 
Contains ferulaic acid^ resin, a volatile oil and several 

terpenes. 
Antispasmodic; carminative; expectorant. 
Employed in hysteria, hs^ochondriasis, convulsions, flat- 
ulence, and spasmodic pectoral affections. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Asafetida. Dose, 10 to 30 mins. 

Tincture Asafetida, U. S. P. Each 100 Cc, repre- 
sents 20 grammes of the drug. Average dose, 1 5 
mins. 

Chocolate-coated Tablets of Asafetida, 1 gr. to 5 grs. 

Pills of Asafetida, 1 gr. to 5 grs. 

Also various combinations in pill and tablet form. 

Note. — The above products are made from selected 
lots of the drug shown by assay to contain not less than 50 
per cent, of alcohol-soluble resin and which, on incineration, 
yield less than 1 per cent, of ash. There are several 
grades of the drug in commerce ; the inferior grades contain 
various impurities such as sand, gypsum and flour, which 
sometimes exceed 30 per cent, of their weight. 



10 



BELLADONNA. 



Also known as Deadly Nightshade. 

The dried leaves and root of Alropa Belladonna 
(Linne) are used. 

Contains chiefly two isomeric alkaloids, atropine and 

hyoscyamine (also hyoscine. belladonine and atrcpamine). 

The root contains a larger percentage of alkaloids than the 
leaves. 

Anodyne; antispasmodic; antihydrotic; antigalactic; 
mydriatic. 

Employed in the treatment of night sweats, mastitis, 
galactorrhea, asthma, spasm of the urethra and bladder, 
whooping-cough, acute sore-throat, collapse; and. in the 

form of ointment or plaster, for the relief of local nerve 
pains. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Belladonna leaves; standard. 0.3% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1 to 4 mins. 

Fluid Extract Belladonna root. U. S. P.; standard. 
0.4% mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose. 1 min.' 

nnciure Belladonna leaves. U. S. P.; standard. 

Average dose. 8 mins. 



03^^ 



4% 



Solid Extract Belladonna leaves, U. S. P.; standard. 

mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose. 1-5 gr. 
Solid Extract (strictly alcoholic) Belladonna leaves; 

standard. 2.75 7o mydriatic alkaloids. Dose 1-12 
to 1-3 gr. 

Solid Extract Belladonna root; standard. 2% myd- 
riatic alkaloids. Dose. 1 -8 to 1 -2 gr. 



11 

Powdered Extract Belladonna leaves ; standard, 
1.4% mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1-8 to 1-2 gr. 

Poxvdered Extract Belladonna root ; standard, 2 % 
mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1 -8 to 1 -2 gr. 

Pills of Belladonna (leaves) extract, 1-8 gr. and 1-4 

gr. 
Tablet Triturates Belladonna (leaves) fluid extract. 

1-2 min. and 1 min. ; tincture, I, 2 and 5 mins, ; 

extract, 1 -8 gr. and 1 -4 gr. 

Pills of Atropine (crystals) and Atropine sulphate in 
various grainages. 

Tablets of Atropine sulphate in various grainages. 
Also many combinations in pill and tablet form. 

Note. — Belladonna is often advantageously combined 
with aconite in fevers — when there is cerebral congestion. 
It should be given in small doses; five to ten minims of the 
tincture may be added to four ounces of water, and a 
teaspoonful of this administered every hour. The drug 
has also proved serviceable in enuresis; in this disease, how- 
ever, it must be pushed until the physiologic effect is pro- 
duced. In constipation Belladonna does good by depress- 
ing the inhibitory nerves of the intestine; therefore it is a 
useful component of cathartic preparations. The dried leaves 
vary remarkably in their percentage of alkaloid; often the 
finest looking ones have to be rejected because inferior 



in strength to smaller and less sightly leaves. We debar 
old and musty specimens, for it is known that they undergo 
change through absorption of moisture and lose a portion 
of their active nitrogenous matter. The leaves and roots 
used by us are botanically authentic and free from 
adulterants. 



12 



CANNABIS SATIVA. 



Also known as Indian Hemp and American Hemp. 
The dried flowering tops of Cannabis saliva (Linne) arc 



used. 

The active constituents are not well understood at present, 
and the nomenclature of different authorities is confused. 

Narcotic; analgesic; sedative. 

Employed in neuralgia, insomnia, delirium tremens, hys- 
teria, headache, and chorea. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Indian Cannabis (U. S, P.); tested 
physiologically. Average dose, 1 min. 

Fluid Extract Cannabis Americana; tested physio- 
logically. Average dose, 1 min. 

Tincture Indian Cannabis (U. S. P.); tested physio- 
logically. Average dose, 10 mins. 

Solid Extract Indian Cannabis (U. S. P.); tested 
physiologically. Average dose. 1-5 gr. 

Solid Extract Cannabis Americana; tested physiologi- 
cally. Average dose. 1 -5 gr. 

Powdered Exiraci Indian Cannabis; tested physio- 
logically. Dcse, 1 -2 gr. to 4 grs. 

Pills Cannabis Indlca extract, 1 -4 gr. and 1 -2 gr. 

Tablet Trilurates Cannabis Indica extract, 1-10 gr.. 

1-8 gr., and 1-4 gr., and Cannabis Indica tincture 

(U. S. p.), 2 mins. 

Also a number of combinations. 

Note.— The home-grown variety of the drug. Cannabis 
Americana, is quite as efficient as the imported drug, and 



I 




c 
o 









C 

G 



13 

less costly. The imported Cannabis varies extremely in 
activity and much of it is practically inert or flagrantly 
adulterated; so that the greatest watchfulness is necessary 
to insure getting a drug of good quality- We test our 
products of Cannabis physiologically — on dogs; this is 
essential, for the chemical estimation of the resin is no guide 
to the value of the drug. A standard dose of the lot to 
be tested is administered in capsule to a dog of average 
nervous sensibihty. The effect of this dose is carefully 
compared with that of a similar dose of standard Cannabis 
administered to another dog at the same time and under the 
same conditions. The doses are then reversed; that Is, the 
dog that has received the test dose receives a dose of the 
standard drug, and a second observation is made. A test 
dose is finally reached that will produce the same action as 
the dose of the standard; and the amount of dilution or 
concentration necessary to bring the tested product to the 
required strength Is determined. The degree of accuracy 
with which the test is carried out depends largely upon the 
experience and care of the observer. 



14 



CINCHONA, 



Also known as Peruvian Bark> 

The dried bark of Cinchona calisaya (yellow), Cinckona 
tucujensts (pale), and Cinchona succiruhra (red) is used 
The last-nan\ed is richest in alkaloids. 

The chief constituents of the bark are quinine, quiniamc, 

cinchonldlne, and cinchonine. 
Tonic; antiperlodic. 
Employed in malaria, anorexia, debility. 



Standardized Products: 



Fluid Extract Cinchona, U. S. P.; standard. Afc 
ether-soluble alkaloids, anhydrous. Average dose. 



15 



mms. 



Fluid Extract Cinchona, detannated. Dose. 1-2 to 
1 fl, dr. 

Fluid Extract Cinchona, pale; standard, 3% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Dose, 1 -2 to 1 fl- dr. 

Fluid Extract Cinchona, red; standard, 5% anhy- 
drous alkaloids. Dose, 1 -4 to I fl. dr. 

Also several compound fluid extracts. 
Tincture Cinchona, U. S, P.; standard, 0J5fo 
anhydrous ether-soluble alkaloids. Average dose. 

1 fluidrachm. 

Tincture Cinchona Compound, U. S. P. Each 100 
Cc. represents: Red Cinchona, yielding not less 
than 5 % of anhydrous cinchona alkaloids, 1 Gm, 
with bitter orange peel, 8 Gm., and serpentaria. 

2 Gm. Average dose, 1 fluidrachm. 



"I 

alkaloids. Dose, 5 to 20 grs. 



6% 



15 

Solid Extract Cinchona, pale; standard. 12% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Dose, 5 to 25 grs. 

Solid Extract Cinchona, red; standard, 20% alka- 
loids. Dose, 5 grs. and upwards. 

Poivdered Extract Cinchona; standard, 16% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Dose, 10 to 30 grs. 

Elixir Calisaya bark, 40 grs. to the fluidounce. 

Elixir Calisaya alkaloids ; each fluidounce represents 
40 grs. of the bark. 

Wine Cinchona Calisaya bark, 40 grs. to the fluid- 
ounce. 

Esencia de Calisaya. A very palatable preparation 
of cinchona calisaya bark; each fluidounce repre- 
sents 24 grs. 

Pills and Compressed Tablets of quinine sulphate, 
quinine bisulphate, quinine arsenate, quinidine sul- 
phate, cinchonidine dihydrobromide, cinchonidine 
salicylate, and cinchonidine sulphate, in various 

grainages. 
Also many combinations in elixir, pill and tablet form. 

Note. — According to pharmacologists there are seventy- 
three false cinchonas, and defective and even worthless 
barks are plentiful in the market. None of this shoddy 
bark finds admittance to our laboratories — every purchase 
we make must pass botanical examination and chemical 
assay. The active principles of Cinchona vary quantita- 
tively in different lots of the same, variety ; consequently, no 
preparation of the drug is fit to use which has not been 
subjected to exact chemical assay — as the above products 
invariably are. 



IG 



COCA. 



The dry leaves of Er^throxylon Coca (Lamarck) are 
used. 

Contains several alkaloids, chief of which is cocaine 
(chemically, methyl-benzoyl-ecgonine). Contains also a 
small amount of tannic acid. 

Stimulant; tonic; restorative. 

Useful in nervous and muscular debility; in convalescence 
from specific fevers; and in mental exhaustion. 

Most often utilized in the form of cocaine, as a local 
anesthetic in minor surgery and as an internal remedy in 
gastrodynia and excessive vomiting. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Exiraci Coca. U. S. P.; standard, 0.5% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Average dose. 30 mins. 

Fluid Extract Coca. Miscible; standard. 0.5% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Dose. 1-2 to 1 fl. dr. 

Solid Extract Coca; standard. 2% ether-soluble alka- 
loid (cocaine). Dose. 10 to 25 grs. 

Pon^dered Extract Coca; standard, 2% ether-soluble 
alkaloid (cocaine). Dose. 10 to 25 grs. 

Wine of Coca. Each fluidounce represents 60 grs. of 
the drug. 

Hvpodermaiic Tablets of Cocaine hydrochloride. 1-12 
gr. to 1 -2 gr. 

Tablet Triturates of Cocaine hydrochloride. 1-20 gr. 
to I -4 gr. 

Cocaine hdrochloridc in crystals, large and small. 





Convallaria maya/iJ— Lily -of-the-valley. 



17 

Cocaine Hydrochloride Tablets, Soluble, 1 J/g grs. 
and 2'/4 grs. 

Cocaine Hydrochloride Solutions, 2^ and 4%, n^iih 
Chloretone. 

Also combinations in pill, elixir, wine, and tablet form. 

Note. — The value of Coca leaves depends largely upon 
the manner in which they are harvested; the choice leaves 
in commerce are those which have been picked by hand 
and in warm, dry weather so that they may be dried in as 
short a period as possible; undue exposure to the sun has a 
bad influence upon the alkaloids — the cocaine is apt ^o split 
up into several substances (among which is a base called 
ecgonine) that have totally different properties. We not 
only obtain our crude drug from trustworthy sources, but 



test all purchases by assay, and apply the alkaloidal test to 
the finished products. 



COLCHICUM. 

Also called Meadow Saffron. 

The root and seed of Colchicum aulunmale (Linne) arc 

used. 

Colchicine, an alkaloid, is the active constituent. 

Sedative; alterative; diuretic; expectorant. 

Used chiefly in rheumatism, gout, asthma, and ascites 
from hepatic obstruction. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Colchicum root (N. F.) ; standard. 
0.35% colchicine. Dose, 2 to 8 mins. 



18 



Fluid Extract Colchicum seed (U. S, P.) ; standard, 
0.4% colchicine. Average dose, 3 mlns. 

Tincture Colchicum seed (U. S- P.); standard. 
0.04% colchicine. Average dose, 30 mins. 

Solid Extract Colchicum corm (U. S. P.) ; standard. 



1.4% colchicine. Average dose. 1 gr. 



colchicine. Dose, 1 -3 gr. to 1 V? 



4fc 



colchicine. 



8% 



Vi 



Wine 



100 Cc. 



Win 



Cc. 



e Colchicum seed (U. S. P.). 10 Gm. in 100 



Tabid Triturate Colchicum root, fluid extract. 1 min 
Tablet Triturate Colchicum seed, tincture (U. S 



P-). 5 mins. 
P«7^ Colchicine, 1-60 



gr- 



Tablet Triturates Colchicine, MOO gr. and 1-50 gr. 
Also various combinations. 

Note.— The contrary opinions of the value of this drug 
are perhaps due to its inequality. Its medicinal virtues 
depend upon the season in which it is collected; early in 
the spnng ,t ,s too young to have fully developed its peculiar 
properties and late in the fall it has become exhausted by 



hment 



w 



carefully the properly picked and dried drug for our 



preparations. 



19 



CONIUM. 



Also known as Pohon HemlocI^. 

The full-grown but unripe fruit of Conium maculatum 
(Linne) is used. 

Contains several alkaloids, but chiefly coniine, which is a 

pyridine derivative. 

Antispasmodic; sedative; anodyne. 

Of value in chorea, whooping-cough, and mania; locally 

in pleuritis and neuralgia. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Conium leaves. Dose, 5 to 20 mins. 

Fluid Extract Conium (U. S. P.) ; standard. 0.45% 
coniine. Average dose, 3 mins. 

Solid Extract Conium leaves. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 

Solid Extract Conium fruit; standard, 2% coniine. 

Dose, 1 to 3 grs. 
Poivdered Extract Conium leaves. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 
Tablet Triturate Conium fruit, tincture, 1 min. 
Hypodermatic Tablet Coniine hydrobromide, 1-8 gr. 

Also various combinations. 

Note. — This powerful drug affords a good argument 
for the necessity of maintaining strict censorship over crude 
materials and also for exact standardization. *'The plant 
varies in narcotic power according to the weather and the 
chmate, being most active in hot and dry seasons and in 
warm countries. On undue exposure the drug loses its fine 
green color and deteriorates — some old samples are 
destitute of narcotic principle. One chemist found that his 
percolate from the seeds was ten times stronger than that 



20 

from the leaves. Commercial Conium sometimes contains 
other umbeUiferous plants or it may be wholly composed or 
such plants, and even anise has been used as an adulterant 
of the fruit." 



CONVALLARIA. 

r 

Also known as Lily-of-the-v alley. 

The dried rhizome and roots of Convallaria majalis 
(Linne) are used. 

Contains two glucosides — convallarin and convallamarln. 
Cardiac tonic; diuretic. 

Serviceable in functional affections of the heart and in 
cardiac dropsy. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Convallaria (U. S. P.) ; tested physio- 
logically. Average dose. 200 heart tonic units 
(8 mins.). 

Tablet Triturate Convallamarin, 1-50 gr. 

Note. — This drug is physiologically standardized — by 
systematic tests on live frogs. The procedure is similar to 
that carried out in the case of digitalis and other heart 
tonics. In certain cases Convallaria is said to give better 
results than digitalis. It is said not to be cumulative and 
also that it may be given with impunity. **Il may be 
administered for a few days and then discontinued for as 
many days, when its influence remains. If prompt effects 

ar,*^ ''"r^ *°"'' T'^ '' *^" '™^^ "^e "0™^1 minimum fatal dose per 
gramme body weight of standard test frogs when administered under 
proper test conditions. Literature on application 



\r 




Digitalis purpurea — Foxglove. 



21 



are desired the tincture in full doses can be given in hot 
water. Its best effects are seen in the dropsy of heart 

disease.** 



DIGITALIS. 

Also known as Foxglove. 

The dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea are used. 

Contains several glucosides, among which are digitalin, 
digitoxin and digitonin. 

Heart tonic; diuretic. 

Employed in myocarditis, cardiac dilatation, functional 
palpitation, renal dropsy secondary to hypertrophy with 
failing compensation, and cardiac disease in general when 
the nervo-muscular structures of the heart-wall fail. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Digitalis (U. S. P.). Average dose. 



1 



min. 



Fluid Extract Digitalis (P. D. & Co.); tested phy- 
siologically. Average dose, 4 heart tonic units* 

(1 min.)- 
Tincture Digitahs (U. S. P.) ; tested physiologically. 
Average dose, 6 heart tonic units* (15 mins.). 

Tincture Digitalis, fat-free; tested physiologically. 
Average dose, 6 heart tonic units* (15 mins.). 

Solid Extract Digitalis (U. S. P.) ; tested physiologi- 
cally. Average dose, 2 heart tonic units* (about 
1-5 gr.). 



*A heart tonic unit is ten times the normal minimum fatal dose per 
gramme body weight of standard test frogs when administered under 
proper test conditions. Literature on application. 



9 '7 



Pofvdered Extract Digitalis ; tested physiologically- 
Average dose, 2 heart tonic units* (about 1-5 gr.)- 

Concenlration Dlgitallsin. 

Digilalone^ a refined preparation of digitalis leaves, 
suitable for oral and hypodermatic use; free from 
alcohol and extraneous matter, and consequently 
non-irritating. Dose, 15 to 30 minims; hypoder- 
matic dose, 8 to 1 5 minims. 

Tablet Trilurates Digitalis fluid extract, 1-10. 1-2 
and 1 min., and Digitalis tincture (U. S. P.)» 1'2 

min, to 5 mins. 

Pills of Digitalin, pure (German), 1-100 gr. and 
1-60 gr., and of Digitahs extract, 1-2 gr. 

Hypodermatic Tablets and Tablet Triturates of 
Digitalin, pure (German), 1-500 gr. to 1-2 gr. 

Also various combinations in pill and tablet form. 

Note. — The above products are made from the best 
obtainable second-year leaves — ^botanically and microscop- 
ically verified. On account of the delicate structure of the 
glucoside present, the leaves must be extracted with great 
care, and they cannot be assayed chemically ; the medicinal 
value of Digitalis can be gauged only by determining its 
effects upon living animals. The minimum fatal dose of 
the drug per gramme of body weight, for standard test 
frogs, is determined by injecting various sized doses into 
the abdominal sac. The minimum fatal dose thus ascer- 
tained serves as a gauge for adjusting the strength of the 
product to conform to our standard, which is 100 per cent. 
of the ac tivity of a first-class quality of crude drug. 

*A heavt tonic unit is ten times the normal minimum fatal dose per 
gramme body weight of standard test frogs when administered under 
proper test conditions. Literature on application 



23 



ERGOT. 



H* 



own 



The sclerotium of the fungus Claviceps purpurea 
(Fries), appearing on rye and other vegetation. 

The chemistry of ergot is much confused and different 
authorities recognize different alkaloldal or glucosldal bodies 
as the chief active principles. In some cases the same 
name is given to different bodies, and vice versa. Among 
the constituents stated to occur in ergot are cornutin 
(Keller) ; ergotoxin (Barger and Carr) ; ergotin (Wen- 
zell) ; sphacelotoxin (Jacobi) ; ergotinic acid (Kobert) ; 
sphacelinic acid (Kobert) ; and a number of other bodies, 
including a sugar, an oil, and a coloring matter. 

Hemostatic; oxytocic; antihydrotlc ; emmenagogue; par- 
turient. 

Employed in menorrhagia and other types of internal 
hemorrhage; night-sweats, uterine inertia, paraplegia, 
chorea, enuresis, and chronic cerebral congestion. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Ergot (U. S. P.) ; tested physiologi- 
cally. Average dose, 30 mins. 

Fluid Extract Ergot, ethereal; tested physiologically. 
Dose, 5 to 60 mins., as required. 

Solid Extract Ergot (U. S. P.); tested physiologi- 
cally. Average dose, 4 grs. 

Powdered Extract Ergot ; tested physiologically. 
Dose, 1 to 5 grs. 

Tahlel Triturates of Ergot extract, 1 gn, and of the 
fluid extract. 1 min. 



2-i 

Ergone. A liquid form of ergot which may be ad- 
ministered internally or subcutaneously ; it is puri- 
fied and physiologically standardized and is equiv- 
alent, minim for minim, to the official fluid extract 
when the latter is made from best quality drug. 
Every lot of Ergone is tested upon animals to 
prove its freedom from irritating properties and its 
normal potency. Dose, 30 to 60 minims; hypo- 
dermatic dose, 15 to 30 minims. 

Ergot Aseptic. This is a more concentrated form of 
ergot than the preceding — each cubic centimeter is 
equivalent to 2 grammes of crude drug of normal 
activity. Ergotinic acid, on account of its irritat- 
mg properties, is eliminated — as in the case of 
Ergone — but no preservative is added. Ergot 
Aseptic is intended especially for hypodermatic ad- 
ministration. Dose, the contents of one bulb. 



hyp 



mmims. 



Pill 



5 



s and Tablets of Ergotin (Bonjean), 1-10 gr. to 



grs. 



Also various combinations in pill and tablet form. 

^^ Note. — A prominent pharmacologist says of Ergot: 
"It is advisable to utter a warning against the use of ergot 
of unknown origin. Many of the samples in daily use are 
worthless; they either have no action or their action is of 
such a feeble nature as to render them useless. A properly 
standardized product is absolutely necessary. Preparations 
of ergot should be freed from ergotinic acid." We procure, 
irrespective of cost, the best ergot obtainable. We 



r 



/ 



J r 



Claviceps purfyurea — Ergot of Rye 



9.^ 



exercise the greatest care to cleanse the crude drug thor- 
oughly and to percolate it in such a manner as to preserve 
its active principles. Because of the impossibility of select- 
ing and accurately separating any definite active principle, 
a physiological assay is the only one suitable for deter- 
mining the value of ergot and its preparations. The estima- 
tion of ergot according to the weight of the ergotinic or 
sclerotic acid it contains is fallacious; this method we dis- 
carded long ago, having learned that ergotinic acid is not 
the desirable active principle of the drug, but one which 
exerts a dangerously depressing influence upon the nerve 
centers without producing any hemostatic effect. We test 
our ergot preparations on cocks, the combs of which are 
peculiarly susceptible to an active product; the adminis- 
tration of appropriate doses of such a product is followed 
by characteristic blackening or blanching of the comb and 



wattles, due to the astringent effect of the ergot upon 
unstrlated muscle fibre, particulariy that surrounding the 
arterioles- 



GELSEMIUM. 



/ 



sempcrvifcm 



(Linne) are used. 



two 



crystalline substance, gelsemic acid. 

Nervine; antispasmodic; antineuralgic. 

Employed in migraine, neuralgia, hysteria, chorea, asthma, 
whooping-cough, dysmenorrhea. 



20 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Gelsemium (U, S. P.) ; standard, 
0.5% alkaloids. Average dose, 1 min. 

Fluid Extract Gelsemium, fresh root; standard. 
0.25% alkaloids. Dose, 1 to 1 mins. 

Tincture Gelsemium (U. S. P.); standard, 0.05% 
alkaloids. Average dose, 8 mins. 

Porvdered Extract Gelsemium; standard. 2% alka- 
loids. Dose, 1-5 to 1 gr. 

Concentration Gelsemperin^ 

Tablet Triturates Gelsemium tincture. 1, 3 and 5 
mins. 

Hypodermatic Tablets Gelsemine hydrochloride, 1-50 
gr. 

Tablet Triturates Gelsemperin, 1 -8 gr. and 1 -4 gr. 
Also various combinations in pill and tablet form. 

Note. — This drug is perhaps best administered in the 
form of a tincture; from 1 to 30 minims may be added 
to 4 ounces of water and of this a teaspoonful given every 
hour or two. lengthening the mtervals as effects appear. Its 
action is to be carefully watched if the heart be weak. 
Gelsemium is said to act well when combined with cannabis 
indica in painful affections; in combination with passiflora 
it sometimes gives belter results in hysteria, insomnia and 
chorea than either remedy alone. It is also used with suc- 
cess in laryngismus stridulus and in torticollis. Every lot of 
crude Gelsemium which we use is identified beyond any 
question, and the extracts adjusted to definite alkaloidal 
standards. 



27 



GUAIAC. 

The resin of the wood of Cuaiacum officinale (Linne) 
or of Cuaiacum sanctum (Linne) is used. 

Contains several resin acids, as well as a coloring matter 
known as guaiac yellow. 

Alterative; diuretic; laxative. 

Useful in gout, rheumatism, scrofula, syphilis, and ton- 
sillitis. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Guaiac (for tincture) ; standard, 60% resin. 
Dose, 1 5 to 60 mins. 

Fluid Extract Cuaiacum wood. Dose, 10 to 20 mins. 

Tincture Guaiac (U. S, P.). Average dose, I fl. dr. 

Compressed Tablet Guaiac, 2 grs. 

Lozenge Guaiac, 2 grs. 

Also various combinations in pill, syrup and tablet 
form. 

Note. — More or less sophisticated Guaiac resin is offered 
for sale, the drug being adulterated by rosin and amber. It 
is unnecessary to say that none of this is used in our labora- 
tory; every lot of Guaiac resin purchased is first subjected 
to a searching examination to make sure that it meets 
official requirements. Tincture of Guaiac is often used 
for the detection of blood stains; it produces a blue color 
when in contact with the red coloring matter of blood in 
the presence of some ozonized substance, as hydrogen 
dioxide. The ammoniated tincture of Guaiac is frequently 
employed in the treatment of sore throat; the following 



28 



makes a good gargle: Tincture Guaiac, ammoniated, 5lv; 
Tincture TKuja, 5ii; Potassium chlorate, 5ii; Tincture Cin- 
chona Compound, 51i; Powdered Acacia, q.s. ; Aquae, q-s. 
ad 5iv. 



GUARANA. 

Also known as Brazilian Cocoa, 

A dried paste consisting chiefly of the crushed seed of 
PaulVmia cupana (Kunth). 

Contains the alkaloid caffeine and free tannic acid. 
Stimulant; antineuralgic; astringent. 
Serviceable in headache, migraine, and diarrhea. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Guarana (U. S. P.); standard. 3.5fo 
alkaloids. Average dose, 30 mins. 

Elixh Guarana (N. F.) ; each fluidounce represents 
96 grs. of the drug. 

Also combinations in pill and elixir form. 

Note. — For these products we employ a crude material 
which, according to assay by the official process, yields not 



">% 



The 



activity of the drug is largely dependent upon its caffeine, 
of which it contains from 3 to 4%, although the percentage 
of tannin present is lafge enough to render Guarana 
products appreciably astringent in the treatment of atonic 
chronic diarrhea. 




Gelsemium sempervircns — Yellow Je«aan>»ne. 



29 



HOANG-NAN. 



The bark of Sfry^chnos malaccensis (Bentham), 
Contains the alkaloids brucine and strychnine. 
For properties and uses, see Nux Vomica. 

Standardized Product: 

Fluid Hoang-Nan (concentrated tincture) ; standard, 
1 % alkaloids. Dose, 3 to 1 mins. 

Note. — The therapeutic effects of Hoang-Nan are very 
similar to those of nux vomica. Specific virtues have been 
claimed for it in the treatment of leprosy and other chronic 
skin diseases, but it is likely that the good results observed 
were due, rather, to its influence in promoting general 
nutrition, *'The drug has a w^ide range of apphcabiHty as 
a roborant — in exhaustion of the muscles and torpor of the 
glandular organs; it sharpens the wits and renders the body 
more active and disposed to work. This stimulant action 
IS not followed by an enfeebling reaction; the dose may be 
repeated daily for years without impairment of general 
heahh." 



HYDRASTIS. 

Also known as Colden-scaL 



Hvdrastis canadensis 



(Llnne) are used. 

Contains three alkaloids — liydrastine, berberine, and 
canadine; when exposed to oxidizing agents the first breaks 

down and forms hydrastinine. 

Tonic; astringent; cholagogue; antlhydrotic. 
Serviceable in gonorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, jaundice. 



Q 







leucorrKea, and atonic gastritis; locally in hemorrKoids and 
ulcerations of mucous surfaces. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Hydrastis (U. S. P.); standard, 2% 
hydrastlne. Average dose, 30 mlns. 

Fluid Golden-seal, colorless. Depends upon the white 
alkaloid Kydrastine for its activity. Dose, 10 to 



60 



mms. 



Fluid Golden-seal, aqueous ; standard, 1 % hydrastinc. 
Dose, 10 to 30 mins. 

Tincture Hydrastis (U. S, P.); standard. 0.4% 
Kydrastine. Average dose, 60 mins. 

Solid Extract Hydrastis; standard, 8% hydrastine. 
Dose, 2 to 1 grs. 

Powdered Extract Hydrastis; standard, 8% hydras- 
tine. Dose, 2 to 10 grs. 

Concenfrafiort Hydrastin. Not the white alkaloid 
hydrastine, but a mixture of hydrastine and her- 



beri 



ne. 



Tablet Triturates Hydrastis tincture, 1 » 2 and 3 mins. ; 
Hydrastin (concentration) , 1 -20 gr. ; and Hydras- 
tine (white alkaloid), M6 gr., 1-8 gr. and 1-4 gr. 

Also various combinations. 

Note. — We employ a crude drug which, when assayed 
by the official process, yields not less than 2.5 fo of 
hydrastine. Our list also includes the following Hydrastis 
alkaloids, which we supply in ounce bottles: berberine hy- 
drochloride, berberine phosphate, berberine sulphate (neu- 
tral salt), hydrastine (white alkaloid), hydrastine hydro- 



31 



■ 

chloride, and hydrastine sulphate — all of unquestionable 
purity. As an Injection in gonorrhea 5 grains of hydrastine 
to each ounce of water may be employed twice a day; or 
40 to 80 minims of the fluid extract to the fluidounce 
instead. 



HYOSCYAMUS. 

Also known as Henbane. 

The dried leaves and flowering tops of Hyosc^amM 

niger are used. 

Contains three alkaloids — chiefly hyoscyamlne and hyos- 

cine, and, in very small quantity, atropine. 

Antispasmodic; sedative; hypnotic. 

Employed in insomnia, hysteria, spasmodic cough, head- 
ache, dehrium tremens, and emphysema. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Hyoscyamus (U. S. P.); standard, 
0.075% mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 3 



mins. 



Tincture Hyoscyamus (U S. P.) ; standard, 0.007% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 30 mins. 

Solid Extract Hyoscyamus (U. S. P.); standard. 
0.3% mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 1 gr. 

Pondered Extract Hyoscyamus; standard, 0-3% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1-2 to 2 grs. 

Pills Hyoscyamus extract, 1 -2 gr. and 1 gr. 



22 



Tablet Triluraies Hyoscyamus extract, l-6» 1-4 and 
1 -2 gr, ; Hyoscyamus fluid extract, 1 min, ; and 
Hyoscyamus tincture (U. S. P.). 2 and 5 mins. 

Pills, Hypodermatic Tablets, and Tablet Triturates 
of Hyoscine hydrobromide, Hyoscyamlne (pure), 
and Hyoscyamine sulphate, 1-200 gr, to 1-50 gr. 

Also various combinations. 

Note. — There are about eleven known species of Hyos- 
cyamus and several varieties of the official drug; the latter 
exhibit a wide difference in medicinal properties. We ufe 
the crude drug collected from biennial plants of the second- 
year growth, yielding, upon assay, not less than 0.08^ of 
mydriatic alkaloids. Leaves of the lirst-year growth are 
extensively used in other laboratories, but as a rule they are 
almost worthless. Recently Hyoscyamus Muticus, collected 
m Egypt, has been introduced and used to some extent 
because of its low cost. This variety should never be 

employed; it differs from the official drug in its active 
alkaloids. 




Hydrastis Canadensis — Golden-seal. 



3:) 



IGNATIA. 

4 

The seeds of Sir^cJmos Ignatii (Berglus) are used. 
Contains strychnine and brucine — ^proportionately more 
of the former than nux vomica contains. 

Its medicinal properties and uses are the same as those 



of 



nux vomica. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Ignatia ; standard, 1 .5 % alkaloids. 
Dose, 1 to 10 mins., cautiously. 

Solid Extract Ignatia; standard, 6% alkaloids. Dose, 
1-6 to I gr., cautiously. 

Tablet Triturates of Ignatia. 1-10 gr., and of Ignatia 
tincture, I min. and 5 mJns. 

Also various combinations in pill, elixir and tablet form. 

Note. — These products are prepared from authentic 
seeds and may be depended upon to produce the true effects 
of the drug. * 'Ignatia appears to possess a tonic influence 
over the nervous system not belonging to nux vomica. It is 
never a remedy for conditions of excitation of the nervous 
system, but its keynote is aton}^; it is a remedy for nervous 
deblhty. It should be thought of in anemic states of the 
brain — in cases where the patient exhibits hysterical, melan- 
cholic or hypochondriacal symptoms." It is a remedy for 
digestive disorders such as atonic dyspepsia and chronic 
catarrh of the stomach with atony; and sick headache of 
debility is relieved by it. As a rule, the dose given is too 
large; 5 to 10 minims of the tincture should be added to 
four ounces of water and the solution administered in tea- 
spoonful doses every two or three hours. 



34 



IPECAC. 



The dried root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha (Brotero) or 

Cephaelis acuminata (Karst). 

Contains three alkaloids — emetine, cephaeline, and psycho- 
trine — and a glucoside known as ipecacuanhic acid. 

Expectorant; emetic; diaphoretic. 

Used in croup, bronchitis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and 
as an emetic in poisoning. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Ipecac, Rio (U. S. P.) ; standard, 
1,5% alkaloids. Average doses: expectorant, 1 
min. ; emetic, 15 mins. 

Fluid Extract Ipecac, Carthagena (U. S. P.); stan- 
dard, 1.5% alkaloids. Dosage same as above. 

Solid Extract Ipecac; standard, 8% alkaloids. Dose, 
1-20 to 1-2 gr. 

WiTjeoi Ipecac (U S. P.). 10 Gm. in 100 Cc. 

S^rup of Ipecac (U. S. P.), 7 Gm. in 100 Cc. 

Tablet Triturates of Ipecac fluid extract. 1 min., and 
of Ipecac powdered. 1 - 1 00 gr. to 1 -2 gr. 

Also various combinations. 

Note. — Many official species of Ipecac are known to 
pharmacologists, some of whicb are mistaken for the true 
drug, or even purposely substituted for it. Different lots of 
Ipecac differ materially in the total amount of alkaloids 
contained; in some, emetine predominates, and in others 
cephaeline— the proportion of alkaloid varying with the 
accidents of growth and surroundings of the individual 



35 



plant. We assay all our Ipecac products very carefully 
on account of this inconstancy in the proportion of active 
principles. 



JALAR 

The dried tuberous root of Exogonium putga (Ben- 

tham) in used. 

Contains a hard resin, insoluble in ether (convolvulin), 
and a much smaller amount of a soft ether-soluble resm 

(jalapin). 

Cathartic; hydragogue; diuretic; anthelmintic. 

Useful in the treatment of dropsy, constipation, and 
Worms, 



Standardized Products: 



Fluid Exiracl Jalap (N. F.) ; standard. 8% alcohol- 



so 



luble resin. Average dose, 15 mins. 



Poivdered Extract Jalap; standard, 32% alcohol- 
soluble resin. Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 
Concentration Jalapin (Jalap resin, U. S. P.)- 
Also various combinations. 



Note.— The J 



Tamp 



male jalap or Orizaba root, and a product known as over- 
grown ialap has also been used. The first two possess m 
5ome degree the properties of true Jalap, but the last is 
practically inert. The true drug, used in our laboratories 
is of prime quality, yielding, when assayed by the official 



s% 



% 



36 



KOLA. 



The nuts of Cola acuminata (Schott and Endlicher) are 
used. 

+ 

Contains caffeine and theobromine. 
Stimulant; tonic. 

Used in muscular and nervous debility and in cardiac 
weakness. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Kola Nut (P. D. & Co.) ; standard. 
I % alkaloid. Dose, 1 to 30 mins. 

Fluid Extract Kola, fresh nut; standard. 0.65% 
alkaloid. Dose, 1 to 30 mins. 

Poxvdercd Extract Kola Nut; standard. 4% alkaloid. 



Dose, 2 to 5 grs. 



Wine of Kola; each fluidounce represents 60 grs. of 
the drug. 

Kola Cordial. An elegant preparation of the drug, 
each fluidounce of which represents 120 grs, of 
selected Kola nut. 

Compressed Tablets of Kola Nut, 5 grs., and of Kola 
Nut extract, 2 grs. 

Also two or three combinations in elixir form. 

Note. — The so-called male Kola is sometimes substi- 
tuted for the genuine drug, as are several other false Kola 
nuts; these are practically devoid of alkaloids, and products 
made from them are. of course, worthless therapeutically* 



kolatannic acid. 



wi 




s 

a 
T 



C 
Q 

3 

u 



01 



37 



NUX VOMICA. 



Also known as Quaker Button, Dog Button, Poison Nut. 
The dried ripe seed of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Linne). 
Contains two alkaloids — strychnine and brucine. 
Stimulant; tonic; stomachic. 

Employed in paralysis, neuralgia, chorea, epilepsy, alco- 
holism, collapse, Insomnia, and emphysema. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Nux Vom.ica (U. S. P.); standard, 
1 % strychnine. Average dose, 1 min. 

Tincture Nux Vomica (U. S. P.); standard. 0A% 
strychnine. Average dcse, 10 mins. 

Solid Extract Nux Vomica; standard, 5% strychnine. 
Average dose, 1-4 gr. 

Porvdered Extract Nux Vomica (U. S. P.) ; stan- 
dard, 5% strychnine. Average dose, 1-4 gr. 

Pills Nux Vomica extract, 1-8 gr., 1-4 gr. and 1-2 gr. 

Pink Granule Nux Vomica. 1-50 gr. 

Chocolate-coated Tablets Nux Vomica extract, 1 -4 gr. 
and 1-2 gr. 

Tablet Triturates Nux Vomica extract, 1-8 gr., 1-4 
gr. and 1 -2 gr. ; Nux Vomica tincture, 1 . 2 and 3 
mins.; and Nux Vomica powdered. 1-100 gr.. 
1-10 gr. and 1-4 gr. 

Pills, Hypodermatic Tablets, Tablet Triturates and 
Compressed Tablets of Strychnine, ^-^^^ f; '° 
1-20 gr.; Strychnine arsenate, l-lOO g^- and 1-50 

gr.; Strychnine arsenite, MOO gr- to 1-30 g^. 
Lychnbenitrate. l-l00gr.tol-I6gr.;Strych- 



38 



nine phosphate, 1-100 gr. to 1-30 gr. ; Strychnine 
sulphate, 1-1000 gr. to 1-16 gr. 

Also a number of combinations in various forms. 

JnJote. — ^The above products are made from crude 
material yielding no less than 1.25% of strychnine when 
assayed by the official method; they are carefully adjusted 
to a definite strength so that each dose is uniform and 
positive as regards alkaloidal content. Our hypodermatic 
tablets and other products of the alkaloid ui* alkaloidal salts 
contain exactly the amount of medicament specified, and in 
its very purest form. 



OPIUM. 

The concrete milky exudation from the unripe capsules 
of Papaver somnifefum (Linne) is used. 

Contains numerous alkaloids, the most important being 
morphine, codeine, narcotine, and narceine. 

Heroin (diacetyl morphine) is an artificial derivative of 

morphine. 

Anodyne, narcotic, hypnotic, and antispasmodic. 

Serviceable for the relief of pain and nervous irritabil- 
ity — ^in neuralgia, colic, spasms, delirium tremens, pleurisy, 
etc. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Opium concentrated; contains 22 grs. crys- 
tallized morphine in each fluidounce and is designed 
for the extemporaneous preparation of the tincture. 
Dose, 1 to 4 mins. 



39 



Fluid Opium camphorated. Each fluidounce contains 
1% grains of crystallized morphine, equal to 2 1-5 
grains morphine sulphate. Designed for the extem- 
poraneous preparation of the tincture. Dose, 8 to 



20 



mms. 



Tinclure Opium camphorated (U. S. P.); each fluid- 
ounce contains 0.22 grain (approximately Y4 gr-) 
crystallized morphine, equal to M-40 grain mor- 
phine sulphate. Average dose, 2 fluidrachms. 

Tincture Opium deodorized (U. S. P.); each fluid- 



^Vz 



equal to 6^ 
dose, 8 mins. 



Average 



Tincture Opium (U. S. P.) ; each fluidounce contains 
5^2 grains crystallized morphine, equal to 6% 
grains morphine sulphate. Average dose, 8 mins. 

Solid Extract Opium; standard, 20^ crystallized 
morphine. Dose, 1-4 to I gr. 

Poy^dered Extract Opium (U. S. P.); standard, 
20% crystallized morphine. Average dose, 1-2 gr. 

Pills Opium, 1-2 gr.; Opium (U S. P.), I gr.; 
Opium extract, 1-4 gr., 1-2 gr. and I gr. 

Chocolate-coated Tablets of Opium camphorated, 
tincture, 1 mins. ; and of Opium powdered, 1-2 gr. 

Tablet Triturates Opium camphorated, tincture. 2, 5 
and 1 mins. ; Opium tinclure, 3 mins, ; and Opium 
powdered, I -8 gr. to I gn 

Pills. Granules, Hypodermatic Tablets. Tablet Triiur- 
ales and Chocolate^coated Tablets of Morphine 
acetate, 1-8 gr, and 1-4 gr.; Morphine hydro- 



40 



hloride, 1-8 gr. to 1-2 gr.; Morphine meconate, 
1-4 gr.; Morphine phlhalate, 1-4 gr.; Morphine 
sulphate, \ -50 gi. to \ -2 gr. ; Morphine valerianate, 
1-8 gr.; Codeine, 1-10 gr. to 1 gr.; Codeine phos- 
phate. 1-8 gr.. 1-4 gr. and 1-2 gr. ; Codeine sul- 
phate, 1-10 gr. to 1 gr. 

Also many combinations of the drug and its alkaloids 
in various forms. 

r 

Note.— Not a few unofficial varieties of Opium find 
tKeir way into the market. The drug is often falsified and 
extensively adulterated with ash, flour, gum arabic, clay, 
and pitch. Good Opium contains roughly one-sixth Us 
weight in alkaloids; we select for our use Opium assaying 
no less than 9% of crystallized morphine. All our Opium 
products may be depended upon to be absolutely true to 
label 



PHYSOSTIGMA. 

Also known as Calabar Beam 



The ripe seed of Physosligma venenosurn (Balfour) is 



use 



d. 

Contains an important alkaloid — ^physostigmine, or eserine. 

Analgesic; myotic; sedative; spinal depressant. 

Employed in tetanus and other convulsive diseases, neu- 
ralgia, muscular rheumatism, and chronic bronchitis ; and in 
0-2% to 0.5% solution to contract the pupil in ophthalmo- 

r 

neonatorum, corneal ulcer, and other ocular diseases. 




Sfrychnos Nux-vomica —Poison Nut. 



41 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Physostigma; standard, 0.15% ether- 
soluble alkaloids. Dose, 1 to 4 mins. 

Tincture Physostigma (U S. P.) ; standard, 0.014% 
ether-soluble alkaloids. Average dose, 15 mins. 

Solid Extract Physostigma; standard, 2% ether-solu- 
ble alkaloids. Dose, 1-8 gr., cautiously increased. 

PoTvdered Extract Physostigma (U. S. P.); stan- 
dard. 2% ether-soluble alkaloids. Average dose. 
1-8 gr.. cautiously increased. 

Ophthalmic Tablet Physostigmine salicylate, 1 -8 gr. 

Tablet Triturate Physostigmine salicylate. 1 - 1 00 gr. 

Hypodermatic Tablets and Tablet Triturates Physo- 
stigmine sulphate. 1-100 gr. and 1-50 gr. 

Also several combinations in tablet form. 

Note.— The above products are prepared from selected 
drug yielding, when assayed by the official process, not less 



% 



Out ophthalmic 



tablets of Physostigmine salicylate will be found very con- 
venient for the extemporaneous preparation of solutions tor 
the reduction of intra-ocular pressure. They dissolve 
readily in distilled water, and yield a solution of defimte 
strength. 



42 

PILOCARPUS. 

Also known as Jaborandu 

The leaflets of Pilocarpus Jaborandi (Holmes) or of 
Pilocarpus microphallus (Stapf) are used. 

Contains three alkaloids — pilocarpine, iso-pilocarpine, 
pilocarpidine — and possibly a fourth. 

Diaphoretic; diuretic; myotic; cholagogue. 

Employed in the dropsy of nephritis, in uremia, eclampsia, 
muscular rheumatism, acute coryza, alopecia, and asthenopia. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Pilocarpus (U. S. P.); standard. 
0,4% alkaloids. Average dose. 30 mins. 

Hypodermatic Tablets Pilocarpine hydrochloride. 
1-20 gr. to 1-2 gr. ; Pilocarpine nitrate, 1-20 gr. 



to 1-3 



gr 



Tablet Triturates Jaborandi. fluid extract, 1 min. ; 
Pilocarpine hydrochloride, I -1 00 gr. to 1-10 gr. 

Pill Pilocarpine hydrochloride, 1-16 gr. 

Note. — As previously stated, this drug in some instances 
contains too little pilocarpine to estimate in the usual way- 
hence we select it very carefully and require it to contain at 
least 0.5% alkaloids. "Jaborandi is the most reliable and 
powerful of the diaphoretics. In dropsy it has been widely 
employed and certainly is a most efficient remedy. It is 
usually given in the form of the fluid extract or the alkaloid. 
When excessive vomiting is produced by the drug it is 
better to administer it every ten minutes in fractional doses. 
After the second or third dose, unless contraindicated, 
whiskey and hot water should be given." 



43 



PODOPHYLLUM. 



Also called May Apple and Mandrake root 
The dried rhizome of Podophyllum pdtalum (Linne) is 
used. 

Contains 4 to 5 % of resin of complex constitution. 
Cholagogue; cathartic; alterative. 

Employed in constipation, rheumatism, scrofula, and 
hepatic congestion. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Podophyllum (U. S. P.); standard, 
4.25% resin. Average dose, 8 mins. 

Poivdered Extract Podophyllum; standard. 1 7% 
resin. Dose, 1 to 5 grs. 

Pink Granule Podophyllum resin, 1-40 gr. 

Concentrations Podophylhn, and Podophyllin yellow. 

Pills, Tablet Triturates and Chocolate-coated Tablets 
of Podophyllin, 1-20 gr. to 1 gr. 

Also a number of combinations in various forms. 

Note.— The cheaper East Indian drug. Podophyllum 
Emodi, has been imported and substituted for the true P. 
peltatum. We employ none but the official variety. 'This 
drug is the most efficient antibilious cathartic we possess. 
It has a marked affinity for the small intestine and influences 
the entire alimentary tract, which in proper doses it stimulates 
to action; larger doses irritate. Minute doses relieve pro- 
lapsus ani in children, and in proctitis it may be prescribed 
with benefit Combined with alteratives it is a valuable 
addition to the treatment of chronic scrofulous and syphiliUc 
conditions." 



i 



44 



QUEBRACHO. 

Also known as Aspidosperma. 

The bark of Aspidosperma Quehracho-blanco (Schlech- 
tcndal) is used. 

Contains several alkaloids, the most important of which 
is aspidospermine. 

Antispasmodic; respiratory stimulant. 

Employed in asthma, spasmodic croup, and dyspnea. 

Standardized Product: 

Fluid Extract Quebracho (N. p.): standard, ]fo 
alkaloids. Dose, 15 to 60 mins. 

Note. — The fluid extract well represents the drug; the 
aspidospermine of commerce is a more or less impure mixture 
of its alkaloids. 



are 



SANGUINARIA. 

Also known as Blood-root. 

The dried rhizome of Sanguinaria canadensis is used. 
Contains five or six alkaloids, the chief of which 
sanguinarine and chelerythrine. 
Expectorant; emetic. 
Employed in croup and bronchitis. 

Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract (hydro-alcohohc) Sanguinaria; stan- 



% 



nuns 



Fluid Extract (acetic) Sanguinaria (U. S. R) 
Average dose, 1^2 mins. 




Aconiium Napellus- Monkshood; Wolfsbane. 



45 

Tincture Sanguinaria (U. S< P.) 5 standard, 0.25% 
sanguinarine. Average dose, 1 5 mins. 

Concentrations Sanguinariin and Sanguinarine nitrate. 
Also various combinations. 

Note. — The above products are made from crude ma- 
terial collected late in the year after the death of the fohage, 
when the active principles of the drug are fully developed. 
A convenient form in which to administer Sanguinaria is 
our standardized tincture. From 5 to 30 minims may be 
diluted with an ounce of water, and a teaspoonful of this 
administered every one, two or three hours. 



SCOPOLA. 

The dried rhizome of Scopola carniolica (Jacquin) is 

used. 

Contains scopolamine or hyoscine. hyoscyamine, and 

atropine- 
Mydriatic; sedative. 



For uses, see Hyoscyamus. 



Standardized Products: 

Solid Extract Scopola 



7c 



mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose. 1 -5 gr. 
Hypodermatic Tablet Scopolamine hydrobromide. 

1-100 gr. 
Also Hypodermatic Tablet of Scopolamine and Mor- 
phine. 
Note.— The drug itself, which in its action is very 
similar to hyoscyamus, is seldom used in medicine; the 



46 

alkaloid scopolamine, which is considered chemically iden- 
tical with hyoscine, is however employed to some extent m 
ophthalmology, in 0.1 to 0.2% solution; also hypoder- 
matically in the treatment of mania. Scopolamine and 
Morphine are administered conjointly, by the hypodermatic 
method, as an aid to ether or chloroform anesthesia. 



SQUILL. 

The bulb of Urginea maritima (Linne) is the part used. 
Contains three active glucosides, namely, scillipicrin, 

scillitoxin, and scillin. 

Diuretic; stimulant expectorant. 

Employed in the treatment of dropsy, croup, bronchitis. 

etc. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract (hydro-alcoholic) Squill; tested physio- 
logically. Dose, 1 to 10 mins. 

Fluid Extract (acetic) Squill (U. S. P.). Average 

dose, 1 ]/2 mins. 
Tincture Squill (U. S. P.). Average dose, 15 mins. 

S};rup Squill (U. S. P.) ; 100 Cc. represents vinegar 
of Squill, 45 Cc. 

Also a number of combinations in various forms. 

Note. — Squill is another drug which cannot be assayed 
chemically. We test it physiologically and adjust the 
extracts of it, in each instance, to a definite standard of 
strength, thus ensuring for our Squill products therapeutic 
reliability. 



47 



STRAMONIUM. 

Also known as Thorn-apple. 

The dried ripe seeds of Datura Stramonium (Linne) are 

used. 

Contains, among other alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamine 

and atropine. 

For action and uses see Belladonna. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Stramonium (U. S. P.); standard. 
0.25% mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 1 min. 

Fluid Extract Stramonium seed (N. F.) ; standard, 
0.35% mydriatic alkaloids. Dose. 1 to 4 mins. 

Tincture Stramonium (U. S. P.); standard. 0.025% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 8 rams. 

Solid Extract Stramonium (U. S. P.) ; standard, 1 % 
mydriatic alkaloids. Average dose, 1-5 gr. 

Solid Extract Stramonium seed; standard, 1.4% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1-8 to 1 gr. 

Powdered Extract Stramonium leaves; standard, 1% 
mydriatic alkaloids. Dose, 1-5 to 1 gr. 

Also combinations in pill and tablet form. 

Note. — Stramonium is so similar to belladonna in its 
action that the two drugs are practically identical. The 
former has been employed in all the conditions for which 
belladonna is commonly used, but has acquired special 
repute as a remedy for asthma— by inhalation of its smoke. 



48 



STROPHANTHUS. 



The ripe seeds of Strophanthus Kombe (Oliver). 
Contains a crystalline glucoside — strophanthin. 

r 

Cardiac stimulant; diuretic. 

Of service in the various affections of the heart in which 
digitalis is commonly given. It is reputed to be more 
decided in its action and free from cumulative effects; also 
that it produces less constriction of the blood-vessels and is 
therefore preferable when arterial tension is high. 

Standardized Products: 

Strophanihone, A refined preparation of Strophan- 
thus, of definite and uniform activity — tested phy- 
siologically — which may be administered either 
orally or hypodermatically. Dose, 15 minims; 
hypodermatic dose, 8 minims. 

Tincture Strophanthus (U. S. P.); tested physiologi- 
cally. Average dose. 600 heart tonic units* (8 
mins. ) . 

Tincture Strophanthus (U. S. P. 1890); tested 
physiologically. Average dose, 600 heart tonic 
units* (15 mins-). 

Pill Strophanthus. 1 -20 gr. 

Tablet Triturates Strophanthus tincture, 1, 2 and 5 

mins. . * , 

Also various compound preparations of the drug and 
its glucoside. 

Note, — In the market Strophanthus is frequently mixed 



•A heart tonic unit is ten times the normal minimum fatal dose per 
«ramme body weight of standard test frogs when administered under 
proper test conditions. Literature on application 



49 

with seeds of other varieties of the plant, of which there are 
twenty-eight, containing strcphanthin in varying proportions 
or not at all. One sample has been found to contain 
ninety limes more of the active principle than another. We 
use only the seeds of Sirophanthus Kombe^ of prime quality. 
But as the amount of strophanthin even in the best crude 
drug varies considerably, it is necessary to standardize the 
finished preparations, and to do so physiologically, inasmuch 
as no chemical procedure will answer. Our products are 
tested on frogs, in much the same manner as digitalis. We 
recommend to the prescrlber our special preparation of the 
drug, Strophanthone; In this preparation the non-essential 
elements are reduced to a minimum, while the normal pro- 
portion of strophanthin in the seed is preserved. The 
activity of this product is just one-half that of the official 
tincture when the latter is prepared from a prime quahty of 
drug. 



•VERATRUM. 

Also known as American Hellebore, 

The dried rhizome and roots of Verairum virlJe (Alton) 

are used. 

Contains several alkaloids, most important of which are 

protoveratrine and jervine. 

Cardiac depressant; diaphoretic; diuretic; febrifuge. 

Employed in eclampsia, acute fevers, and mania. 



Standardized Products: 

Fluid Extract Veratrum (U S. R) ; standai^, 1 % 
alkaloids. Average dose,. 1 Yz mins. 



50 

Tincture Veratrum (U. S. P.); standard, 0.1% 
alkaloids. Average dose, 15 mins. 

Tablet Triturates Veratrum viride tincture (U. S. 
,P.), 1 mln. and 2 mins. 

Veratrone. This is an aseptic, non-irritating product, 
of definite and uniform strength, for oral or hypo- 
dermatic use. Dose, 15 to 30 minims; hypo- 
dermatic dose. 8 to 15 minims. 

Note, — The above preparations are made from care- 
fully selected crude material, adjusted physiologically to a 
fixed strength. Both guinea-pigs and dogs are used to 
prove and to measure their activity in every instance. Our 
special product of the drug — Veratrone — deserves emphasis. 
It is one-fourth the strength of the official fluid extract and 
has repeatedly given evidence of its superiority over other 
fluid preparations of Veratrum. To the obstetrician it is 
of especial value; in puerperal eclampsia and all other 
conditions in which the drug is indicated it will be found to 
be prompt and positive in its action. It is favorably re- » 
garded by hospital authorities, one of whom writes: "It 
has so far shown no deterioration on keeping; its subcutane- 
ous use is not followed by local irritation; the preparation 
should commend itself to all practitioners who believe in 
the Veratrum treatment of eclampsia." 



52698 





POSTSCRIPT. 



The foregoing pages include only drugs 
and drug products, and take no cognizance 
of a large number of chemical preparations 
and animal products, besides omitting some 
important preparations of vegetable origin, 
sucb as Taka-Diastase and Nuclein solu- 
tions. Included in the list of remedial 
agents which we subject to standardization 
are certain Serums, Vaccines, Bacterial 
Vaccines^ Tuberculins, Digestive Ferments, 
Adrenalin products, disinfectants such as 
Kreso and Cresylone, and miscellaneous 
pharmaceutical preparations; for example, 
Tinctures of Iodine and Ferric Chloride* 
and Syrups of Ferrous Iodide and Hydri- 
odic Acid, 

iTo these may still be added all definite 
chemical compounds, as illustrative of 
which we may cite Formidine, lodalbin, 
Acetozone, Alkaloids and their salts. Hy- 
drogen Peroxide and others.